Constructing the Sacred: Visibility and Ritual Landscape at the Egyptian Necropolis of Saqqara

Introduction: Note 23

The concept of environmental ‘affordances’, introduced by James J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986), has been adopted and adapted by many scholars working with archaeological landscapes, including Timothy Ingold, The Perception of the Environment : Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill (London: Routledge, 2000), 166–68; Marcos Llobera, “Building Past Landscape Perception With GIS: Understanding Topographic Prominence,” Journal of Archaeological Science 28, no. 9 (2001): 1005–14,; Gary Lock, Mariza Kormann, and John Pouncett, “Visibility and Movement: Towards a GIS-Based Integrated Approach,” in Computational Approaches to the Study of Movement in Archaeology, ed. Silvia Polla and Philip Verhagen (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2014), 23–42; and Mark Gillings, “Landscape Phenomenology, GIS and the Role of Affordance,” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 19, no. 4 (2012): 608,